Acquired adult flatfoot deformity (AAFD) is a progressive flattening of the arch of the foot that occurs as the posterior tibial tendon wears down. It has many other names such as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, posterior tibial tendon insufficiency and dorsolateral peritalar subluxation. This problem may progress from early stages with pain along the posterior tibial tendon to advanced deformity and arthritis throughout the hindfoot (back of the foot) and ankle.
Ailments of the Midfoot
Acquired Adult Flatfoot Deformity
A Lisfranc injury involves the joints and/or the ligaments of the middle of the foot. The Lisfranc ligament is a ligament of the foot that runs between two bones called the medial cuneiform and the second metatarsal. The name comes from French surgeon Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847), who was the first physician to describe injuries to this ligament.
There are a variety of causes for this injury such as a car accident, sports injury, or a simple slip and fall. Sometimes the injury can be mistaken for a foot sprain when X-rays do not show any broken bones. Delaying treatment can sometimes lead to more significant problems. The key for the treatment of a Lisfranc injury is proper diagnosis.
Metatarsalgia (Forefoot Pain)
Pain in the ball of your foot, the area between your arch and the toes, is called metatarsalgia (MET-ah-tar-SAL-gee-ah). The pain usually centers on one or more of the five bones (metatarsals) in this area under the toes.
If your first few steps out of bed in the morning cause severe pain in the heel of your foot, you may have plantar fasciitis, an overuse injury that affects the sole of the foot. A diagnosis of plantar fasciitis means you have inflamed the tough, fibrous band of tissue (fascia) connecting your heel bone to the base of your toes.
Plantar Fibroma and Plantar Fibromatosis
A plantar fibroma is a benign (non-cancerous) nodule that grows in the arch of the foot and usually appears between ages 20 and 60. It usually is slow-growing and often less than one inch in size. Some can grow faster and are considered plantar fibromatosis. A plantar fibroma or fibromatosis is a disease of the fibrous tissue that grows between the skin and the underlying fascia.
Progressive Flatfoot (Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction)
Tendons connect muscles to bones and stretch across joints, enabling you to bend those joints. One of the most important tendons in the lower leg is the posterior tibial tendon. This tendon starts in the calf, stretches down behind the inside of the ankle, and attaches to bones in the middle of the foot.
The posterior tibial tendon helps hold up your arch and provides support as you step off on your toes when walking. If this tendon becomes inflamed, overstretched, or torn, you may experience pain on the inner ankle and gradually lose the inner arch on the bottom of your foot, leading to flatfoot.